Throughout this Guide a number of terms and associated formulas are used that are common to many analytical procedures. In this section we provide a brief summary of those that fall into this category. Others, that are more specific to a particular field of analysis, are treated within the section to which they primarily apply. Many of the measures we list will be familiar to readers, since they originate from standard single variable (univariate) statistics. For brevity we provide details of these in tabular form. In order to clarify the expressions used here and elsewhere in the text, we use the notation shown in Table 1‑2. Italics are used within the text and formulas to denote variables and parameters, as well as selected terms.