<< Click to Display Table of Contents >>

Navigation:  Resources >


Abdi H (1994) A neural network primer. J. of Biological Systems, 2(3), 247-283

Amouroux E, Chu T Q, Boucher A and Drogoul A (2007) GAMA: An Environment for Implementing and Running Spatially Explicit Multi-agent Simulations, in Ghose A, Governatori G and Sadananda R (eds.), Pacific Rim International Conference on Multi-Agents (PRIMA 2007), Springer, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 359-371

Andrienko N, Andrienko G (2006) Exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data, a systematic approach. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany

Andrienko G, Andrienko N, Voss H (2003) GIS for everyone: the CommonGIS project and beyond. in M. Peterson (ed.) Maps and the Internet. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK

Ahuja R K, Magnanti T L, Orlin J B (1993) Network flows: Theory, algorithms and applications. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA

Allan A L (2004) Maths for map makers. 2nd ed. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Scotland

Alonso D, Sole R V (2000) The Divgame simulator: A stochastic cellular automata model of rainforest dynamics. Ecological Modeling, 133, 131-141

Angel S, Hyman G M (1976) Urban fields. Pion, London

Angeniol B, Vaubois G de la C, le Texier J-V (1988) Self-organizing feature maps and the travelling salesman problem. Neural Networks, 1, 289-293

Anselin L (1988) Spatial econometrics: Methods and models. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NL

Anselin L (2002) Under the hood: Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models. Agricultural Economics, 17(3), 247-67

Anselin L (1995) Local indicators of spatial association — LISA. Geog. Anal., 27, 93-115

Anselin L, Bera A (1998) Spatial dependence in linear regression models with an introduction to spatial econometrics. in Ullah A, Giles D (eds.) Handbook of applied economic statistics. Marcel Dekker, New York, 237–89

Anselin L, Kim Y W, Syabri I (2003) Web-based analytical tools for the exploration of spatial data. J. of Geographical Systems 6(2), 197-218

Anselin L, Syabri I, Kho Y (2006) GeoDa: An introduction to spatial data analysis. Geog. Anal., 38, 5-22

Arnaud J-F, Madec L, Bellido A, Guiller A (1999) Microspatial genetic structure in the land snail Helix Aspersa (Gastropoda: Helicidae). Heredity, 83, 110-19

Armstrong D J (2006) The quarks of object-oriented development. Communication of the ACM, 49(2), 123-128

Arora S (1996) Polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean TSP and other geometric problems. Proc. 37th Ann. IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, IEEE Computer Society, 2-11

Athale C A, Deisboeck T S (2006) The effects of EGF-receptor density on multiscale tumour growth patterns. J. of Theoretical Biology, 238, 771-779

Augustijn P W M, Useya J, Zurita-Milla R, Osei F B (2011) Simulation of cholera diffusion to compare transmission mechanisms. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on GeoComputation, London, UK, 20-22 July 2011 : e-book / editor T. Cheng et al. — London : University College London (UCL), 2011, pp. 39-42

Avella P, Sassano A, Vasil’ev I (2005) Computational study of large-scale p-median problems. Math. Program., A, 32, 215-30

Axelrod R (2006a) Agent-based modeling as a bridge between disciplines. in Tesfatsion L, Judd K L (eds.) Handbook of computational economics: Agent-based computational economics. North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Axelrod R (2006b) Advancing the art of simulation in the social sciences. in Rennard J-P (ed.) Handbook of research on nature inspired computing for economy and management. Idea Group, Hersey, USA

Axelrod R (2007) Simulation in the Social Sciences. in Rennard J P (ed.) Handbook of research on nature inspired computing for economy and management. Idea Group, Hershey, PA, pp. 90-100

Axelrod R, Bennett S D (1993) A landscape theory of aggregation. British J. of Political Science, 23(2), 211-233

Axelrod R, Tesfatsion L (2006) A guide for newcomers to agent-based modeling in the social sciences. in Tesfatsion L, Judd K L (eds.) Handbook of computational economics: Agent-based computational economics. North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Axtell R, Axelrod R, Epstein J M, Cohen D (1996) Aligning simulation models: A case study and results. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 1, 123-141

Axtell R L (1999) The emergence of firms in a population of agents: Local increasing returns, unstable Nash equilibria, and power law sze distributions. Center on Social and Economic Dynamics: Working Paper No. 3, Washington, USA

Axtell R L (2000) Why agents? On the varied motivations for agent computing in the social sciences. Center on Social and Economic Dynamics (The Brookings Institute): Working Paper 17, Washington, D.C

Axtell R L, Epstein J M, Dean J S, Gumerman G J, Swedlund A C, Harburger J, Chakravarty S, Hammond R, Parker J, Parker M (2002) Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 99(3), 7275-7279

Azis I J (1990) Analytical Hierarchy Process in the benefit-cost framework: A post-evaluation of the trans-Sumatra highway project. European J. of Operational Research, 48, 38-48

Beddeley A, Turner R (2005) Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns. J of Statistical Software, 12(6), 1-42. Downloadable from: (

Baddeley A, Turner R, Moller J, Hazelton M (2005) Residual analysis for spatial point processes. J. of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 67, 617–666

Bailey K (2003) AMIS: Development and application of a GIS/Multicriteria corridor evaluation methodology. Proc. Map Asia 2003 conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Bailey T C, Gatrell A C (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis. Longman, Harlow, UK

Bak P, Paczuski M, Shubik M (1999) Price variations in a stock market with many agents. Cowles Foundation: Discussion Paper 1132:

Ball G H, Hall D J (1965) A novel method of data analysis and pattern classification. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California

Banzhaf W, Nordin P, Keller R E, Francone F D (1998) Genetic Programming — an introduction. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, USA

Baskent E Z, Jordan G A (1995) Characterizing spatial structure of forest landscapes. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 1830-49

Batty J M, Densham P J (1996) Decision support, GIS, and urban planning. Systemma Terra, V(1), 72-76

Batty M (2001) Agent-based pedestrian modeling. Environment and Planning B, 28(3), 321-326

Batty, M (2005) Agents, Cells and Cities: New representational models for simulating multi-scale urban dynamics. Environment and Planning A, 37(8), 1373-1394

Batty M (2007) Cities and complexity. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA (1st pub. 2005)

Batty, M (2017) Producing Smart Cities. In: Kitchin, R., Lauriault, T. and Wilson, M. (eds.) Understanding Spatial Media. London: Sage Publications, pp. 204-215

Batty M, Conroy R, Hillier B, Jiang B, Desyllas J, Mottram C, Penn A, Smith A, Turner A (1998) The virtual Tate. Working Paper 5, CASA, University College London

Batty M, Desyllas J, Duxbury E (2002) The discrete dynamics of small-scale spatial events: Agent-based models of mobility in carnivals and street parades. Working Paper 56, CASA, University College London

Batty M, Desyllas J, Duxbury E (2003a) Safety in numbers? Modeling crowds and designing control for the Notting Hill carnival. Urban Studies, 40(8), 1573-1590

Batty M, Desyllas J, Duxbury E (2003b) The discrete dynamics of small-scale spatial events: Agent-Based Models of mobility in carnivals and street parades. Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (University College London): Working Paper 56

Beasley J E (1985) A note on solving large p-median problems. European J. of Operational Research, 21, 270-73

Beasley J, Christofides N (1989) An algorithm for the resource-constrained shortest path problem. Networks, 19, 379-394

Beasley J E (1990) OR-Library: distributing test problems by electronic mail. J. of the Operational Research Society 41(11), 1069-72

Beasley J E (1993) Lagrangian heuristics for location problems. European J. of Operational Research, 65, 383-99

Beltran C, Tadonki C, Vial J-P (2004) Semi-Lagrangian relaxation. Optimization Online:

Benedikt M L (1979) To take hold of space: Isovists and isovist fields. Environment and Planning B, 6(1), 47–65

Benenson I (2009) Geographic Automata Systems, Geosimulation and Object Based Environment for Urban Simulation (OBEUS) Research Page: Available at

Benenson I, Aronovich S, Noam S (2005) Let’s talk objects: generic methodology for urban high-resolution simulation. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 29, 425–453

Benenson I, Birfur S, Kharbash V (2004) OBEUS (Object-Based Environment for Urban Simulation) Shareware Version. Association Geographic Information Laboratories Europe (AGILE), Crete

Benenson I, Birfur S, Kharbash V (2006) Geographic Automata Systems and the OBEUS software for their implementation. in Portugali, J. (ed.) Complex Artificial Environments: Simulation, Cognition and VR in the Study and Planning of Cities Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 137-153

Benenson I, Omer I, Hatna E (2002) Entity-based modeling of urban residential dynamics: The case of Yaffo, Tel Aviv. Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 29, 491-512

Benenson I, Torrens P (2004) Geosimulation: Automata-based modeling of urban phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, London

Berger T, Parker D C (2001) Examples of specific research. in Parker D C, Berger T, Manson S M (eds.), Meeting the challenge of complexity: Proceedings of a special workshop on land-use/land-cover change. Irvine, California

Berke O (2000) Modified median polish kriging and its application to the Wolfcamp-acquifer data. Discussion Paper 48/00, Univ. of Dortmund, Dept of Statistics

Berke O (2004) Exploratory disease mapping: kriging the spatial risk function from regional count data. Intl. J of Health Geographics, 3(18), 1-11 (available from:

Bernard L, Krüger T (2000) Integration of GIS and spatio-temporal simulation models: Interoperable components for different simulation strategies. Transactions in GIS, 4(3), 197-215

Bernhardsen T (2002) Geographic Information Systems — an introduction. 3rd edition, J Wiley, Hoboken, NY, USA

Berry B J L, Marble D F (1968) Spatial analysis — a reader in statistical geography. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

Berry J K (1993) Beyond Mapping: Concepts, algorithms and issues in GIS. GIS World Books, and also available online in HTML format

Besag J, Kooperberg C L (1995) On conditional and intrinsic autoregressions. Biometrika, 82, 733-46

Besag J, York J, Mollie A (1991) Bayesian image restoration, with two applications in spatial statistics. Annals of the Institute of Statistical Maths, 43, 1-59

Blanford J I, Huang Z, Savelyev A and MacEachren A M (2015) Geo-located tweets. Enhancing mobility maps and capturing cross-border movement. PloS one, 10(6); e0129202

Blastland M, Dilnot A (2008) The tiger that isn’t. Profile Books, London

Bluman A G (2003) Elementary statistics: A step by step approach. 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York

Bonabeau E (2002) Agent-based modeling: methods and techniques for simulating human systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 99(3), 7280-7287

Booch G (1994) Object-Oriented analysis and design with applications. Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City, USA

Boots B N (1987?) Voronoi (Thiessen) Polygons. CATMOG 45 (op. cit.)

Borgefors G (1996) On digital distance transforms in three dimensions. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 64(3), 368-376

Boyd  D, and Crawford  K (2012) Critical questions for Big Data: Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon, Information, Communication & Society, 15(5); 662-679

Bowman A W, Azzalini A (1997) Applied smoothing techniques for data analysis: The kernel approach with S-Plus illustrations. Oxford Statistical Science Series, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Brewer C A, Pickle L (2002) Evaluation of methods for classifying epidemiological data on choropleth maps in series. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geogs., 92, 662-81

Britton J, Shephard N and Vignoles A (2015) Comparing sample survey measures of English earnings of graduates with administrative data during the Great Recession (No. W15/28). IFS Working Papers

Brown D G (1998) Classification and boundary vagueness in mapping pre--settlement forest types. Int. J. of Geog. Information Science, 12, 105-29

Brown D G (2006) Agent-based models. pp7-13 in Geist H (ed.) The Earth's changing land: An encyclopedia of land-use and land-cover change. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport

Brown D G, Riolo R, Robinson D T, North M, Rand W (2005) Spatial process and data models: Toward integration of agent-based models and GIS. J. of Geographical Systems, 7(1), 25-47

Brunsdon C, Fotheringham A S, Charlton M (1998) Geographically Weighted Regression — modeling spatial non-stationarity. The Statistician, 47, 431-443

Burrough P A (1986) Principles of Geographical Information Systems for land resources assessment. Monographs on Soil and Resources Survey No. 12. Clarendon Press, Oxford

Burrough P A (1989) Fuzzy mathematical methods for soil survey and land evaluation. J. of Soil Science, 40, 477-92

Burrough P A, McDonnell R A (1998 2nd ed., 2015 3rd ed.) Principles of Geographical Information Systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Butler D (2013) When Google Got Flu Wrong. Nature News, vol 494, pp155-6 (14 Feb 2013 )

Candau J (2000) Calibrating a cellular automaton model of urban growth in a timely manner. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects and Research Needs, Banff, Canada

Canzian L and Musolesi M (2015) Trajectories of depression: unobtrusive monitoring of depressive states by means of smartphone mobility traces analysis. Proceedings of the 2015 ACM international joint conference on pervasive and ubiquitous computing. 1293-1304

Carley K M (1996) Validating computational models. Carnegie Mellon University: Working Paper, Pittsburgh, USA

Carlson R E, Foley T A (1991) Radial Basis methods on track data. Proc. of the 13th IMACS World Congress on Computation, R. Vichnevetsky (ed.), Criterion Press, Dublin, 428- 29

Carlson R E, Foley T A (1992) Interpolation of track data with radial basis methods. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 24, 27-34

Carlyle W M, Wood R K (2003) Lagrangian relaxation and enumeration for solving constrained shortest-path problems. Proc, 38th Annual ORSNZ Conference, Waikato, New Zealand

Carr D B, Wallin J F, Carr D A (2000) Two new templates for epidemiology applications: Linked micromap plots and conditioned choropleth maps. Statistics in Medicine, 19, John Wiley & Sons, 2521-38

Carr D B, Chen J, Bell S, Pickle L, Zhang Y (2002) Interactive linked micromaps and dynamically conditioned choropleth maps. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Digital Government Research, Digital Government Research Center, 61-7

Carvalho J (2000) Using AgentSheets to teach simulation to undergraduate students. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 3(3)

CATMOG, or Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography, were published between 1975 and 1995. See CATMOG section of QMRG and listing of titles in this Guide for more details

Casti J L (1997) Would-be-worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA

Castle C J E (2006) Using Repast to develop a prototype agent-based pedestrian evacuation model. Proceedings of the Agent 2006 Conference on Social Agents: Results and Prospects, Chicago, USA

Castle C J E (2007) Agent-Based Modelling of pedestrian evacuation: A study of London’s King’s Cross Underground Station. PhD Thesis, University College London, London, UK

Castle C E, Crooks A (2006) Principles and concepts of agent-based modeling for developing geospatial simulations. CASA Working Paper 110, University College London

Chatfield C (1975) The analysis of time series: theory and practice. Chapman and Hall, London

Cheriton D, Tarjan R E (1976) Finding minimum spanning trees. SIAM J. Comput., 5, 724-42

Clark P J, Evans F C (1954) Distance to nearest-neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology, 35, 445-53

Cederman L-E (2001) Agent-based modeling in political science. The Political Methodologist, 10(1), 16-22

Chen L-C, Carley K M, Fridsma D, Kaminsky B, Yahja A (2006) Model alignment of anthrax attack simulations. Decision Support Systems, 41, 654-668

Cheng T, Adepeju M (2013) Detecting Emerging Space-Time Crime Patterns by Prospective STSS, Geocomputation 2013 proceedings (forthcoming)

Cheng T, Haworth J, Anbaroglu, Tanaksaranond G, Wang J (2013) Spatio-temporal data mining. Ch. 68 in Handbook of Regional Science, Springer-Verlag, forthcoming

Chin F, Snoeyink J, Wang C A (1999) Finding the Medial Axis of a Simple Polygon in Linear Time, Discrete and Computational Geometry, 21(3), 405-420

Christensen J, Marks J, Shieber S (1995) An empirical study of algorithms for point-feature label placement. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 14(3), 203-232

Christofides N, Beasley J (1982) A tree search algorithm for the p-median problem. European J. of Operational Research, 10, 196-204

Cliff A, Ord J (1973) Spatial autocorrelation. Pion, London

Cliff A, Ord J (1981) Spatial processes: models and applications. Pion, London (an updated and extended version of their 1973 book)

Collier N, North M J (2005) Repast for Python scripting. Annual Conference of the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS), Notre Dame, Indiana, USA

Conte R, Gilbert N, Sichman J S (1998) MAS and social simulation: A suitable commitment. in Sichman J S, Conte R, Gilbert N (eds.), Multi-agent systems and agent-based simulation. Springer, New York

Connelly R, Playford C J, Gayle V and Dibben C (2016) The role of administrative data in the big data revolution in social science research. Social science research, 59; 1-12

Cooper L (1963) Location-allocation problems. Operations Research, 11, 331-43

Cooper L (1964) Heuristic methods for location-allocation problems. SIAM Review, 6, 37-53

Cormen T H, Leiserson C E, Rivest R L, Stein C (2001) Introduction to algorithms. 2nd ed., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Correa E S, Steiner M T A, Freitas A A, Carnieri C (2001) A genetic algorithm for the p-median problem. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2001), San Francisco, CA, USA

Couclelis H (1985) Cellular Worlds: A framework for modeling micro-macro dynamics. Environment and Planning A, 17, 585-596

Couclelis H (2001) Why I no longer work with agents: A challenge for ABMs of human-environment interactions. in Parker D C, Berger T, Manson S M (eds.) Meeting the challenge of complexity: Proceedings of a special workshop on land-use/land-cover change. Irvine, California

Couclelis H (2002) Modeling frameworks, paradigms, and approaches. pp. 36–50 in Clarke K C, Parks B E, Crane M P (eds.) Geographic information systems and environmental modeling. Prentice Hall, London

Crampton J W, Graham M, Poorthuis A, Shelton T, Stephens M, Wilson M W and Zook M (2013) Beyond the geotag: situating ‘big data’ and leveraging the potential of the geoweb. Cartography and geographic information science, 40(2); 130-139

Cressie N A C (1991, 1993) Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley, New York (Revised edition 1993)

Cressie N A C, Chan N H (1989) Spatial modeling of regional variables. J Amer. Stat. Assoc., 84, 393-401

Cromley R G (1996) A comparison of optimal classification strategies for choroplethic displays of spatially aggregated data. Int. J. of Geog. Information Science, 10, 101-109

Cromley R G , Ye Y (2006) Ogive-based legends for choropleth mapping. CAGIS, 33(4)

Crooks A T (2006) Exploring cities using agent-based models and GIS. Proceedings of the Agent 2006 Conference on Social Agents: Results and Prospects, Chicago, USA

Crooks A T (2007), Experimenting with cities: Utilizing Agent-Based Models and GIS to explore urban dynamics. PhD Thesis, University College London, London, England

Crooks A T, Castle C, Batty M (2007) Key challenges in agent-based modeling for geo-spatial simulation. CASA Working Paper 121, University College London

Crooks A T, Castle C J E, Batty M (2008) Key challenges in Agent-Based Modelling for geo-spatial simulation. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 32(6), 417-430

Crooks A T, Hudson-Smith A, Dearden J (2008) Agent Street: Agent Based Modelling in Second Life, CASA Publication, University College London

Dacey M (1968) A review of measures of contiguity for two and k-color maps. pp 479-95 in Berry B J L, Marble D F eds. Spatial analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

Dale M R T (2000) Lacunarity analysis of spatial pattern: a comparison. Landscape Ecology, 15, 467-8

Dale P (2005) Introduction to mathematical techniques used in GIS. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA

Dantzig G B (1960) On the shortest route through a network. Management Science, 6, 187-90

Daskin M S (1995) Network and discrete location — models, algorithms and applications. Wiley, NJ, USA

Delmelle E (2008) Sapatial sampling. Ch 10 in Fotheringham A S and Rogerson P A (eds.) op. cit.

Densham P J, Rushton G (1992) A more efficient heuristic for solving large p-median problems by heuristic methods. Papers in Regional Science, 71, 307-329

de Smith M J (2004) Distance transforms as a new tool in spatial analysis, urban planning and GIS. Environment & Planning B, 31, 85-104

de Smith M J (2006) Maths for the mystified. Troubador Publishing Ltd, Leicester, UK

de Smith M J (2006a) Determination of gradient and curvature constrained optimal paths. Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 21, 17-31

de Smith M J (2018) Understanding Mathematics in the Digital Age. The Winchelsea Press, Drumlin Security Ltd, St Andrews, UK

Deutsch C V, Journel A G (1992, 1998) GSLIB geostatistical software library and user’s guide. Oxford University Press, New York

Dibble C, Feldman P G (2004) The GeoGraph 3D computational laboratory: Network and terrain landscapes for Repast. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 7(1):

Dijk S F van, Thierens D, Berg M T de (2002) Using genetic algorithms for solving hard problems in GIS. GeoInformatica, 6(4), 381-413

Diggle P J (1983) Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. Academic Press, London

Diggle P J (1990) A point process modeling approach to raised incidence of a rare phenomenon in the vicinity of a pre-specified point. J. Royal Stat. Soc., A, 153, 349-62

Dijkstra E W (1959) A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik, 1, 269-71

Diplock G (2000) Genetic programming: a new approach to spatial model building. Ch 9 in Openshaw S, Abrahart R J, eds. (2000) GeoComputation. Taylor and Francis, London

Dixon C, Leach B (1977) Sampling methods for geographical research. CATMOG 17

Dodge M, Kitchin R (2001) Atlas of Cyberspace. available as a free PDF file from: (originally published by Addison-Wesley)

Dodge M, Kitchin R (2007) Outlines of a world coming in existence’: Pervasive computing and the ethics of forgetting. Environment and Planning B, 34(3); 431–445

Dodge M, McDerby M, Turner M (eds.) (2008) Geographic visualization: Concepts, tools and applications. J Wiley

Dorling D (1996) Area cartograms: Their use and creation. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography (CATMOG), 59, Geo Abstracts Ltd, Norwich, UK

Dougenik J A, Chrisman N R, Niemeyer D R (1985) An algorithm to construct continous area cartograms, Professional Geographer, 37 (1), 75-81

Douglas D H (1994) Least cost path in GIS using an accumulated cost surface and slope lines. Cartographica, 31, 37-51

Douglas D H, Peucker T K (1973) Algorithms for the reduction of the number of points required to represent a digitised line or its caricature. The Canadian Cartographer, 10, 112-22

Draper G, Vincent T, Kroll M E, Swanson J (2005) Childhood cancer in relation to distance from high voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case-control study. British Medical J., 330, 4 June 2005, 1-5

Dubin R (2008) Spatial weights. Ch 8 in Fotheringham A S, Rogerson P A, eds. op.cit.

Dubois G, Saisana M (2002) Optimal spatial declustering weights — comparison of methods. Proc. Annual Conf. International Assoc. for Math. Geology, Berlin, 479-84

Dugdale J (2006) An evaluation of seven software simulation tools for use in the social sciences:

Dunn J C (1973) A fuzzy relative of the ISODATA process and its use in detecting compact well-separated clusters. J. of Cybernetics, 3, 32-57

Dugmore K (2010) Information collected by Commercial Companies: What might be of value to Official Statistics? The case of the UK Office for National Statistics. London: Demographic Decisions Ltd

Duhigg C (2012) How companies learn your secrets. The New York Times, 16 Feb. 2012

Duque J C, Anselin L, Rey S J (2012) The max p-regions problem. J. of Regional Science, 52, 3, 397-419

Dyer M E, Frieze A M (1985) A simple heuristic for the p-center problem. Operations Research Letters, 3, 285-8

Eastman J R (1989) Pushbroom algorithms for calculating distances in raster grids. Proceedings, Autocarto 9, 288-97

Ebisch K (2002) A correction to the Douglas-Peuker line generalization algorithm. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 995-7

Efron B (1982) The Jackknife, the Bootstrap and other resampling plans. Philadelphia: SIAM

Efron B, Tibshirani R J (1997) Improvements on cross-validation: The .632+ bootstrap method. J. American Stat. Assoc., 92, 548-560

Eidelson B M, Lustick I (2004) VIR-POX: An agent-based analysis of smallpox preparedness and response policy. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 7(3). Available at:

Emonet T, Macal C M, North M J, Wickersham C E, Cluzel P (2005) AgentCell: A digital single-cell assay for bacterial chemotaxis. Bioinformatics, 21(11), 2714-2721

Epanechnikov V A (1969) Nonparametric estimation of a multidimensional probability density. Theor. Probab. Appl., 14, 153-8

Epstein J M (1999) Agent-based computational models and generative social science. Complexity, 4(5), 41-60

Epstein J M, Axtell R (1996) Growing artificial societies: Social science from the bottom up. MIT Press, Cambridge, USA

ESRI (1996) Automation of map generalization ― the cutting edge technology. ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA:

Fedra K (1996) Distributed models and embedded GIS: Integration strategies and case studies. in Goodchild M F, Steyaert L T, Parks B O (eds.) GIS and environmental modeling: Progress and research issues. GIS World Books, Fort Collins, 413-8

Fischer M M (2006) Spatial analysis and geocomputation: Select essays. Springer, Berlin

Fischer M M, Lung Y (1998) A genetic-algorithms based evolutionary neural network for modeling spatial interaction data. The Annals of Regional Science, 32(3) 437-458. reprinted as Ch 8 in Fischer M M (2006)

Fisher N I (1993) Statistical analysis of circular data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Fisher W D (1958) On grouping for maximal homogeneity. J. of the American Statistical Association, 53, 789-98

Foresman T W ed. (1998) The history of geographic information systems: Perspectives from the pioneers. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA

Fortin M-J, Dale M R T (2008) Spatial autocorrelation. Ch 6 in Fotheringham A S and Rogerson P A (eds.) op. cit.

Fotheringham A S, Rogerson P A, eds. (2008) The SAGE handbook of spatial analysis. Sage Publications Ltd.

Fotheringham A S, Brunsdon C, Charlton M (2002) Geographically Weighted Regression: The analysis of spatially varying relationships. Wiley, New York

Fotheringham A S, Charlton M, Chris Brunsdon, Nakaya T (2005) Model selection issues in Geographically Weighted Regression. Proc., Geocomputation 2005 Conference, Ann Arbor, Mi. USA

Franklin S, Graesser A (1996) Is it an agent, or just a program? A taxonomy for autonomous agents. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, Springer-Verlag

Freeman M F, Tukey J (1950) Transformations related to the angular and the square root. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 21, 607-11

Gabriel K R, Sokal R R (1969) A new statistical approach to geographic variation analysis. Systematic Zoology, 18, 259-78

Gaile G L, Burt J E (1980) Directional statistics, CATMOG 25 (op. cit.)

Galea E R, Gwynne S (2006) Principles and practice of evacuation modeling (7th Edition). Fire Safety Engineering Group — University of Greenwich, London

GAMA (2016), GAMA Modeling and Simulation Development Environment Available at  [Accessed on 20th October, 2016].

Gardner R H, O'Neill R V (1991) Pattern, process, and predictability: the use of neural models for landscape analysis. pp 289-307 in Turner M G, Gardner R H, eds. (1991) Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York

Gastner M T, Newman M E J (2004) Diffusion-based method for producing density-equlizing maps, Proc. National Academy of Science, 101, 20, 7499-7504

Gendreau M, Laporte G, Potvin J-Y (2002) Metaheuristics for the capacitated VRP. pp 129-154 in Toth P, Vigo D eds. (2002) SIAM Monographs on Discrete Mathematics and Applications

Getis A D, Griffith D A (2002) Comparative spatial filtering in regression analysis. Geog. Anal., 34, 130-40

Getis A D, Ord J K (1992) The analysis of spatial association using distance statistics. Geog. Anal., 24, 189-206

Getis A D, Ord J K (1995) Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application. Geog. Anal., 27, 287-306

Gilbert N (2004) Agent-based social simulation: Dealing with complexity. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Gilbert N, Bankes S (2002) Platforms and methods for agent-based modeling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99(3), 7197-7198

Gilbert N, Terna P (1999) How to build and use agent-base models in social science. Mind & Society, 1, 57-72

Gilbert N, Troitzsch K G (2005) Simulation for the social scientist. Open University Press, UK

Gimblett H R, Richards M T, Itami R M (2002) Simulating wildland recreation use and conflicting spatial interactions using rule-driven intelligent agents. pp 211-243 in Gimblett H R (ed.) Integrating geographic information systems and agent-based modeling techniques for simulating social and ecological processes. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Glover F (1977) Heuristics for integer programming using surrogate constraints. Decision sciences, 8, 156-166

Glover F (1986) Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence. Computers and operations research, 13, 533-549

Glover F, Laguna M (1997) Tabu search. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Univ of Colorado

Goerge R M, Lee B J (2002) Matching and cleaning administrative data. New Zealand Economic Papers, 36(1); 63-64

Gold C M, Thibault D (2001) Map generalization by skeleton retraction. Proceedings, International Cartographic Association, Beijing, China, 2072-81

Golledge R G, Rushton G (1972) Multidimensional scaling: Review and geographical applications. Commission on college geography, Tech. Paper 10, Washington DC, Assoc. of Amer. Geogs.

Goodchild M F (1986) Spatial autocorrelation. CATMOG 47 (op. cit.)

Goodchild M F (2005) GIS, spatial analysis, and modeling overview. in Maguire D J, Batty M, Goodchild M F (eds.) GIS, spatial analysis and modeling. ESRI Press, Redlands, California

Goodchild M F (2013) The quality of big (Geo)data. Dialogues in Human Geography 3(3); 280-284

Goodchild M F, Mark D M (1987) The fractal nature of geographic phenomena. Annals of Association of American Geographers, 77, 265-78

Goodchild M F, Kemp K K eds. (1990) NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Goodchild M F, Longley P A (1999) The future of GIS and spatial analysis. In Longley et al. (1999, op cit), 567-80

Goodchild M F, Parks B O, Steyaert L T, eds. (1993) Environmental modeling with GIS. Oxford University Press, New York

Goodchild M F, Proctor J (1997) Scale in a digital geographic world. Geographical and Environmental Modeling, 1, 5-23

Goodchild M F, Steyaert L T, Parks B O, Johnston C, Maidment D, Crane M, Glendenning S eds. (1996) Environmental modeling: Progress and research issues. GIS World Books, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York

Goovaerts P (1999) Geostatistics in soil science: state-of-the-art and perspectives. Geoderma, 89, 1-45

Griffith D A (2005) A comparison of six analytical disease mapping techniques as applied to West Nile Virus in the coterminous United States, Intl. J of Health Geographics, 4:18. Available from:

Grignard A, Taillandier P, Gaudou B, Vo D A, Huynh N Q and Drogoul A (2013) GAMA 1.6: Advancing the Art of Complex Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation, in Guido G, Elkind E, Savarimuthu B T R, Dignum F and Purvis M K (eds.), International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, Springer, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 117-131

Grimm V (1999) Ten years of individual-based modelling in ecology: What have we learned, and what could we learn in the future? Ecological Modelling, 115(2-3): 129 — 148

Grimm V et al. (2006) A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models. Ecological Modelling, 198(1-2): 115–126

Groves RM et al. (2011) Survery Methodology. 2nd ed., J Wiley, London/New York

Guan X Y, Chen C (2014) Using Social Media Data to Understand and Assess Disasters. Natural Hazards, 74(2); 837-850

Gumerman G J, Swedlund A C, Dean J S, Epstein J M (2003) The evolution of social behavior in the prehistoric American southwest. Artificial Life, 9(4), 435-444

Gustafson E J (1998) Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art. Ecosystems, 143-56

Gustafson E J, Parker G R (1992) Relationships between landcover proportion and indices of landscape spatial pattern. Landscape Ecology 7, 101-10

Haggett P, Chorley R J (1969) Network analysis in geography. E Arnold, London

Haining R (2003) Spatial data analysis — theory and practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Haining R (2008) The special nature of spatial data. Ch2 in Fotheringham A S and Rogerson P A (eds.) op. cit.

Haklay M (2004) Map calculus in GIS: a proposal and demonstration. Int. J. Geog. Information Science, 18, 107-25

Haklay M (2006) Comparing map calculus and map algebra in dynamic GIS. Ch 5 in Drummond J, Billen R, Forrest D and Jo E. eds. (2006) Dynamic & mobile GIS: Investigating change in space and time, Taylor & Francis/CRC

Haklay M (2010) How good is volunteered geographical information? A comparative study of OpenStreetMap and Ordnance Survey datasets. Environment and planning B: Planning and design, 37(4); 682-703

Haklay M (2013) Citizen science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation. In Sui, D., Elwood, S. and Goodchild, M. (eds.) Crowdsourcing geographic knowledge. Netherlands: Springer, pp.105-122

Haklay M, O'Sullivan D, Thurstain-Goodwin M, Schelhorn T (2001) '"So go downtown": Simulating pedestrian movement in town centers. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 28(3), 343-359

Hales D, Rouchier J, Edmounds B (2003) Model-to-model analysis. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 6(4):

Hanrahan P, Ebert D S, Musgrave F K, Peachey D, Perlin K, Worley S, eds. (2003) Texturing and modeling: A procedural approach. 3rd ed., Morgan and Kaufmann, San Francisco

Harris R, Sleight P, Webber R (2005) Geodemographics, GIS and neighborhood targeting. J Wiley & Sons

Harvey D (1969) Explanation in geography. E Arnold, London

Harvey M J, Barbour R W (1965) Polygon fitting of Microtus Ochrogaster as determined by a modified minimum area method. J of Mammology, 46, 398-402

Hawley K, Moellering H (2005) A comparative analysis of areal interpolation methods: A preliminary report. Proc. Auto-Carto 2005, CaGIS

Heitkötter J, Beasley D, eds. (2000) The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to Evolutionary Computation: A list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). USENET:

Henzinger M R, Klein P, Rao S (1997) Faster shortest-path algorithms for planar graphs. J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 55, 3-23

Heppenstall A, Crooks A T, See L M and Batty M eds. (2012) Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems.Springer-Verlag,

Hertz A, Laporte G, Mittaz M (2000) A tabu search heuristic for the capacited arc routing problem. Operations Research, 48, 129–35

Herzog A (2003) Developing cartographic applets for the Internet. in Peterson M P (ed.): Maps and the Internet, Vol. 1 115-128, Pergammon/Elsevier

Heywood I, Cornelius, S, Carver S (2006) An introduction to geographical information systems (3rd Edition). Pearson Education, UK

Hillier B et al. (1993) Natural movement: or, configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement. Environment & Planning B, 20, 29-66

Holland J H (1995) Hidden order: How adaptation builds complexity. Addison-Wesley, Reading

Horne B K P (1981) Hill shading and the reflectance map. Proc. IEEE 69, 14-47

Horni A, Nagel K and Axhausen K W, eds.(2016) The Multi-Agent Transport Simulation MATSim, Ubiquity, London, England

Howe T R, Collier N T, North M J, Parker M T, Vos J R (2006) Containing agents: Contexts, projections, and agents. Proceedings of Agent 2006 Conference on Social Agents: Results and Prospects, Chicago, USA

Hubert L J, Golledge R G (1982) Comparing rectangular data matrices. Environment and Planning A, 14(8), 1087-1095

Hudson-Smith A (2008) Digital Geography: Geographic visualization for urban environments., CASA Publications, UCL, London

Huff D (1993) How to lie with statistics. W W Norton & Co, New York

Hutchinson M F (1988) Calculation of hydrologically sound digital elevation models. Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Sydney, Columbus, International Geographical Union, 117-33

Hutchinson M F (1989) A new procedure for gridding elevation and stream line data with automatic removal of spurious pits. J. of Hydrology 106, 211-32

Hutchinson M F (1996) A locally adaptive approach to the interpolation of digital elevation models. In Proceedings, Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, NM. Available online from NCGIA

Ikonen L, Toivanen P (2005) Shortest routes on varying height surfaces using gray-level distance transforms. Image and Vision Computing, 23, 133-141

Iliffe J, Lott R (2008) Datums and map projections for remote sensing, GIS and surveying. 2nd Edition. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Scotland

Ilachinski A (1997) Irreducible semi-autonomous adaptive combat (ISAAC): An artificial-life approach to land combat. Center for Naval Analyses, Virginia, USA

Isaaks E H, Srivastava R M (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York

Jacquez G M (1996) A k nearest neighbour test for space-time interaction. Statistics in Medicine, 15, 1935-1949

Jaeger J A G (2000) Landscape division, splitting index, and effective mesh size: new measures of landscape fragmentation. Landscape Ecology 15, 115-130

Jain A K (1989) Fundamentals of digital image processing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Jacquez G M, Meliker J R (2008) Case-control clustering for mobile populations. Ch19 in Fotheringham A S and Rogerson P A (eds.) op.cit.

Jenks G F, Caspall F C (1971) Error on choroplethic maps: Definition, measurement, reduction. Annals of American Geographers, 61, 217-44

Jenson S, Domingue J (1988) Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information system analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54, 1593-600

Jiang B (2004) Selection of streets from a network using self-organizing maps. Trans. in GIS, 8, 335-350

Jiang B, Claramunt C (2002) Integration of Space Syntax into GIS: New perspectives for urban morphology. Trans. in GIS, 6(3), 295-309

Johnston K M, Maguire D (2007) Agent-based modeling: Position statement. UCSB/UCL Workshop on Agent-Based Modeling of Complex Spatial Systems, April 14-16, 2007, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Jones K H (1998) A comparison of algorithms used to compute hill slope as a property of the DEM. Computers & Geosciences, 24, 315-23

Kabos S, Csillag F (2002) The analysis of spatial association on a regular lattice by join-count statistics without the assumption of first-order homogeneity. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 901-910

Kanevski M, Timonin V, Pozdnukhov A (2009) Machine learning for spatial environmental data: theory, applications, and software. CRC Press, Boca Raton

Keitt T H, Urban D L, Milne B T (1997) Detecting critical scales in fragmented landscapes. Conservation Ecology, 1, 4

Kempf-Leonard K ed. (2005) Encyclopaedia of social measurement. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, USA, 921-6

Kennedy W (2012) Modelling Human Behaviour in Agent-Based Models, in Heppenstall A, Crooks A T, See L M and Batty M (eds.) Agent-based Models of Geographical Systems, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 167-180

Kikpatrick S, Gelatt C D, Vecchi M P (1983) Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 220 (4598), 671-680

King G, Rosen O, Tanner M A (2004) Ecological inference: New methodological strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

Kohonen T (1984) Self-organization and associative memory. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Kohonen T (1995) Self Organizing Maps. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Kollman K, Miller J H, Page S E (1992) Adaptive parties in spatial elections. The American Political Science Review, 86(4), 929-937

Kreft J-U, Booth G, Wimpenny W T (1998) BacSim, a simulator for individual based modeling of bacterial colony growth. Microbiology, 144, 3275-3287

Kristinsson H, Jonsson M T, Jonsdottir F (2005) Pipe route design using variable topography distance transforms. Proc. IDETC/CIE ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conference

Krzysztof K, Dzwinel W, Yuen D A (2005) Nonlinear development of bacterial colony modeled with cellular automata and agent objects. International J. of Modern Physics C, 14(10), 1385-1404

Kulldorf M (1997) A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 26, 1481-1496

Kulldorf M, Hjalmars U (1999) The Knox method and other tests for space-time interaction. Biometrics, 55, 544-552

LaGro J Jr (1991) Assessing patch shape in landscape mosaics. Photogrammetric Eng. Remote Sens. 57, 285-93

Lamb A, Paul M J, Dredze M (2013) Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter. HLT-NAACL; 789-795

Lampos V, De Bie T, Cristianini N (2010) Flu detector-tracking epidemics on Twitter. Proceedings of the 2010 European conference on Machine learning and knowledge discovery in databases; 599-602

Laney D (2001) 3D data management: controlling data volume, velocity, and variety. Online: (Accessed 26.06. 17)

Langran G (1992) Time in geographic information systems. Taylor and Francis, London

Lansley G (2016) Cars and Socio-economics: Understanding Neighbourhood Variations in Car Characteristics from Administrative Data. Regional Studies, Regional Science, 3(1); 264-285

Lansley G, Cheshire J (forthcoming, 2018) Challenges to Representing the Population from New Forms of Consumer Data

Lansley G, Li W (forthcoming, 2018) Consumer Registers as spatial data infrastructure, and their use in migration and residential mobility research. In Longley, P., Singleton, A. and Cheshire, J. (Eds.) Consumer Data Research. London: UCL Press

Lansley G, Longley P (2016a) Deriving age and gender from forenames for consumer analytics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30; 271-278.

Lansley G, Longley P (2016b) The geography of Twitter topics in London. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 58; 85–96

Lansley G, Wei Y, Rains T (2015) Creating an Output Area Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Heritage to Assist the Planning of Ethnic Origin Foods in Supermarkets in England and Wales. In the Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on GIS Research UK. 15th – 17th April, 2015. University of Leeds, UK

Law A M, Kelton D (1991) Simulation modeling and analysis. (2nd Edition), McGraw-Hill, New York, USA

Leak A (2017) Applications of New Forms of Data to Demographics. Doctoral Thesis, University College London, Department of Geography, London

Levine N (2007) CrimeStat: A spatial statistics program for the analysis of crime incident locations (v3.1). N Levine & Associates, Houston, TX, and the National Inst. of Justice, Washington, DC. See:

Levy S (1993) Artificial Life: The quest for a new creation. Penguin Books, London

Li H, Reynolds J F (1993) A new contagion index to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 8,155-62

Li L, Zhu L, Sui D Z (2007) A GIS-based Bayesian approach for analyzing spatio-temporal patterns of intra-city motor vehicle crashs. J of Transport Geog., 15, 274-285

Li X, Magill W (2001) Modeling fire spread under environmental influence using a cellular automaton approach. Complexity International, 8, 1-14

Lichstein J W, Simons T R, Shriner S A, Franzreb K E (2002) Spatial autocorrelation and autoregressive models in Ecology. Ecological Monographs, 72, 445-63

Lindsay J B (2005) The Terrain Analysis System: A tool for hydro-geomorphic applications. Hydrological Processes, 19, 1123-30

Linthicum D S (2000) Enterprise application integration. Addison-Wesley, Boston

Lloyd A, Cheshire J (2017) Deriving retail centre locations and catchments from geo-tagged Twitter data. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 61; 108-118

Longley P A (2004) Geographical Information Systems: On modeling and representation. Progress in Human Geography, 28(1), 108-116

Longley P A, Batty M, eds. (1997) Spatial analysis: Modeling in a GIS environment. J Wiley & Sons, New York

Longley P A, Batty M, eds. (2001) Advanced spatial analysis — the CASA book of GIS. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA

Longley P A, Goodchild M F, Maguire D J, Rhind D W (1999) Geographic information systems: Principles, techniques, management and applications. 2nd ed., J Wiley, New York

Longley P A, Goodchild M F, Maguire D J, Rhind D W (2005) Geographic information systems: Principles, techniques, management and applications. Abridged edition, J Wiley, Hoboken.

Longley P A, Goodchild M F, Maguire D J, Rhind D W (2015) Geographic information science and systems. 4th ed., J Wiley, Chichester, UK

Longley P A, Harris R (1999) Towards a new digital data infrastructure for urban analysis and modeling. Environment and Planning B, 26, 855-78

Love R F, Morris J G (1972) Modeling intercity road distances by mathematical functions. Oper. Res. Quart., 23, 61-72

Love R F, Morris J G, Wesolowsky G O (1988) Facilities location, models and methods. North-Holland, New York

Luke S, Cioffi-Revilla C, Panait L and Sullivan K (2004) MASON: A New Multi-Agent Simulation Toolkit. SwarmFest 2004, Eighth Annual Swarm Users/Researchers Conference, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA

Luke S (2015) Multiagent Simulation and the MASON Library, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, Available at

Lustick I (2002) PS-I: A user-friendly agent-based modeling platform for testing theories of political identity and political stability. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 5(3):

Macatulad E G and Blanco A C (2014) 3DGIS-Based Multi-Agent Geosimulation and Visualization of Building Evacuation Using GAMA Platform, The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(2): 87-91

Macal C M, North M J (2005) Tutorial on agent-based modeling and simulation. in Euhl M E, Steiger N M, Armstrong F B, Joines J A (eds.), Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference. Proceedings of the 2005 Introductory Tutorials section

Mackaness W A, Ruas A, Sarjakoski T L (eds.) (2007) Generalization of geographic information; Cartographic modeling and applications. Elsevier, Netherlands

Mackay R J, Oldford R W (2000) Scientific method, statistical method, and the speed of light. Working Paper 2000-02, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. and in Statistical Science, 15, 3, 254-278. Available as a free downloadable PDF from

Maguire D J (1995) Implementing spatial analysis and GIS applications for business and service planning. in Longley P A, Batty M (eds.) GIS for business and service planning. GeoInformation International, Cambridge, UK

Maguire D J (2005) Towards a GIS platform for spatial analysis and modeling. in Maguire D J, Batty M, Goodchild M F (eds.) GIS, spatial analysis and modeling. ESRI Press, Redlands, California, USA

Maguire D, Batty M, Goodchild M F eds. (2005) GIS, spatial analysis and modeling. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA

Mandelbrot B B (1982) The fractal geometry of nature. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York

Mannan B, Roy J (1998) Fuzzy ARTMAP: supervised classification of multi-spectral remotely-sensed images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 767-774

Manson S M (2001) Simplifying complexity: A review of complexity theory. Geoforum, 32(3), 405-414.

Manson S M (2003) Epistemological possibilities and imperatives of complexity research: A reply to Reitsma. Geoforum, 34(1), 17-20

Manson S M (2007) Challenges to evaluating models of geographic complexity'. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 34, 245-260

Mantel N (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Research, 27, 209–220

Manyika J, Chiu M, Brown B, Bughin J, Dobbs R, Roxburgh C, Hung Byers A (2011) Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity. McKinsey Global Institute

Makarov V L, Bakhtizin A R, Zhitkov V A (2008) Agent-Based Model for traffic jams in Moscow. ABS2 Agent Based Spatial Simulation International Workshop, 24-25 November 2008, Paris, France, Available at

Malleson N (2008) RepastCity — A demo virtual city.

Mardia K V, Jupp P E (1999) Directional statistics. 2nd ed., John Wiley, Chichester

Martin D J (1996) Geographic information systems: Socio-economic applications. Routledge, London

Martin D (2000) Census 2001: making the best of zonal geographies. Paper presented at the Census of population: 2000 and beyond, conference, University of Manchester, 22-23rd June 2000

Masser I, Campbell H, Craglia M eds. (1996) GIS diffusion: The adoption and use of geographical information systems in local government in Europe. Taylor & Francis, Bristol, PA, USA

Matheron G (1973) The intrinsic random functions and their application. Advances in Applied Prob., 5, 439-68

McGarigal K, Marks B J (1995) FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. Gen. Tech. Report PNW-GTR-351, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, USA

McGinnis S A (2001) On the effects of geometry in discrete element numerical earthquake simulations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado

McHarg I L (1969) Design with nature. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York

McMaster R B, Shea K S (1992) Generalization in digital cartography. Washington DC, Association of American Geographers

Mennis J, Leong J, Khanna R (2005a) Multidimensional map algebra. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Geocomputation, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Mennis J, Viger R, Tomlin C D (2005b) Cubic map algebra functions for spatio-temporal analysis. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 32, 17-32

Mennis J, Hultgren T (2006) Intelligent dasymetric mapping and its application to areal interpolation. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 33, 179-194

Messina J P and Walsh S J (2000) The application of a cellular automaton model for predicting deforestation. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects and Research Needs, Banff, Canada

Miller H J, Goodchild M F (2014) Data-driven geography. GeoJournal. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-014-9602-6

Miller H J, Shaw S-L (2001) Geographic information systems for transportation. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Milne BT (1991) Lessons from applying fractal models to landscape patterns. pp. 199-235 in Turner M G, Gardner R H (eds.) Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York

Minar N, Burkhart R, Langton C, Askenazi M (1996) The Swarm simulation system: A toolkit for building multi-agent simulations:

Mitasova H, Mitas L (1993) Interpolation by regularised spline with tension. Math. Geol., 25, 641-55

Mitchell A (1999) The ESRI guide to GIS analysis, Volume 1: Geographic patterns and relationships. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA

Mitchell A (2005) The ESRI guide to GIS analysis, Volume 2: Spatial measurements and statistics. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA

Mitchell B R (2006) Comparison of programs for fixed kernel homerange analysis. June 2006 newsletter, The Wildlife Society, GIS Working Group.

Mitchell J S B (1998) Geometric shortest paths and network optimization. Handbook of Computational Geometry, Elsevier Science, Sack J-R, Urrutia J, eds. (2000) Chapter 15, 633-701. Draft available as a PDF from

Mitchell T (2005) Web mapping illustrated: using open source GIS toolkits. O'Reilly Media

Moore I D, Grayson R B, Landson A R (1991) Digital terrain modeling: A review of hydrological, geomorphological and biological applications. Hydrological processes, 5, 3-30

Moore I D, Lewis A, Gallant J C (1995) Terrain attributes: Estimation methods and scale effects, in Jakeman A J, Beck M B, McAleer M J (1995) Modeling change in environmental systems. John Wiley, New York

Morais C D (2012) Where is the Phrase “80% of Data is Geographic” From? Online (Accessed 02.06.17)

Moran P A P (1948) The interpretation of statistical maps. J. of the Royal Statistical Society B, 10, 243-51

Moran P A P (1950) Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika, 37, 17-23

Moser C A, Kalton G (1985) Survey Methods in Social Investigation, 2nd ed. Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company Ltd

Moshe D ed. (2000) Arc routing: Theory, solutions and applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam

Muttiah R S, Engel B A, Jones D D (1996) Waste disposal site selection using GIS-based simulated annealing. Computers and Geosciences, 22(9), 1013-1017

Najlis R, Janssen M A, Parker D C (2001) Software Tools and Communication Issues. in Parker D C, Berger T, Manson S M (eds.), Meeting the challenge of complexity: Proceedings of a Special Workshop on Land-Use/Land-Cover Change, Irvine, California

Nakaya T, Fotheringham A S, Brunsdon C, Charlton M (2005) Geographically weighted Poisson regression for disease association mapping. Statist. in Med., 24, 2695–717

National Research Council of the National Academies (2006) Beyond Mapping: meeting national needs through enhanced geographic information science. The National Academies Press, Washington DC

Neteler M, Mitasova H (2008) Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS approach. 3rd Ed., Springer, New York

North M, Macal C M, Vos J R (2004) Terrorist organization modeling. North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science Conference 2004, Pittsburgh, USA

North M J, Howe T R, Collier N T, Vos J R (2005a) The Repast Simphony development environment. Proceedings of the Agent 2005 Conference on Generative Social Processes, Models, and Mechanisms, Chicago, USA

North M J, Howe T R, Collier N T, Vos J R (2005b) The Repast Simphony runtime system. Proceedings of the Agent 2005 Conference on Generative Social Processes, Models, and Mechanisms, Chicago, USA

North M J, Macal C M (2007) Managing business complexity: Discovering strategic solutions with Agent-Based Modelling and simulation. Oxford University Press, New York, NY

O’Brien L G (?) The statistical analysis of contingency table designs. CATMOG 51

Oden N (1995) Adjusting Moran's I for population density. Statistics in Medicine 14, 17-26

Okabe A, Boots B, Sugihara K, Chiu S N (2000) Spatial tessellations: Concepts and applications of Voronoi diagrams. 2nd ed., J Wiley, New Jersey

Okabe A, Okukuki K-I, Shiode S (2006a) The SANET Toolbox: New methods for network spatial analysis. Trans in GIS, 10(4), 535-550

Okabe A, Okukuki K-I, Shiode S (2006b) SANET: A toolbox for spatial analysis on a network. Geog. Anal., 38, 57-66

Okabe A, Satoh T (2008) Spatial analysis on a network. Ch23 in Fotheringham A S, Rogerson P A (eds.) op.cit.

Okabe A, Satoh T, Sugihara K (2009) A kernel density estimation method for networks, its computational method and a GIS-based tool. Int. J. of Geographical Information Science, 23(1), 7-32

O’Kelly M E (2008) Applied retail location models using spatial interaction tools. Ch22 in Fotheringham A S, Rogerson P A (eds.) op.cit.

Openshaw S (1977) A geographical solution to scale and aggregation problems in region-building, partitioning and spatial modeling. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS 2, 459-72

Open Geospatial Consortium Inc (2006) OpenGIS implementation specification for Geographic Information. Simple feature access, Part 1: Common architecture. Ref: OGC 06-103r3, 2006-10-05

Openshaw S (1984) The modifiable areal unit problem (Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography, (CATMOG), 38. Geo Abstracts Ltd, Norwich, England

Openshaw S (1984) Ecological fallacies and the analysis of areal census data. Environment and planning A, 16(1); 17-31

Openshaw S, Abrahart R J, eds. (2000) GeoComputation. Taylor and Francis, London

Openshaw S, Taylor P J (1979) A million or so correlation coefficients: three experiments on the modifiable areal unit problem. In: Wrigley, N. (ed.) Statistical Applications in the Spatial Sciences. London: Pion, pp. 127-144

O'Sullivan D (2001) Exploring spatial process dynamics using irregular cellular automaton models. Geog. Anal., 33(1), 1-18

O'Sullivan D (2002) Understanding the difference that space can make: Towards a geographical agent modeling environment. Proceedings of the Agent 2002 Conference on Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution, University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory

O'Sullivan D (2004) Complexity science and human geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29(3), 282-295

O’Sullivan D, Unwin D J (2003, 2010) Geographic information analysis. J Wiley, New Jersey; 2nd ed. 2010.

O’Sullivan F (2005) Factors affecting Radon levels in houses: A GIS study around Castleisland, County Kerry, South-West Ireland. Unpub. MSc Thesis, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, University College London

Painho M, Bação F (2000) Using genetic algorithms in clustering problems. Proc. GeoComputation 2000 available via

Parinov S I (2007) New possibilities for simulations of socio-economic systems. Artificial Societies, 2(3‑4): 23-53

Parker D C (2001) Object-Oriented packages for agent-based modeling

Parker D C (2005) Integration of geographic information systems and Agent-Based Models of land use: Challenges and prospects. Pp. 403-422 in Maguire D J, Batty M, Goodchild M F (eds.), GIS, Spatial Analysis and Modeling, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA

Parker D C, Manson S M, Janssen M A, Hoffmann M J, Deadman P (2003) Multi-Agent systems for the simulation of land-use and land-cover change: A review. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(2), 314-337

Pearson H (2015) Massive UK baby study cancelled: after demise of similar US project, decision prompts rethink about design of future cradle-to-grave efforts. Nature, 526(7575); 620-622

Perry J N, Liebhold A M, Rosenberg M S, Dungan J, Meriti M, Jakomulska A, Citron-Pousty S (2002) Illustrations and guidelines for selecting statistical methods for quantifying pattern in ecological data. Ecography 25, 578-600

Peuquet D J (2005) Time in GIS and geographical databases. in Longley P A, Maguire D J, Goodchild M F, Rhind D (eds.) Geographical information systems: Principles, techniques, applications, and management (Abridged Edition). John Wiley & Sons, New York

Peuquet D J, Duan N (1995) An event-based spatio-temporal data model (ESTDM) for temporal analysis of geographic data. International J. of Geographical Information Systems, 9(1), 2-24

Piantanakulchai M (2005) Analytical Network Process model for highway corridor planning. Proc. ISAHP 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii

Pickles, J. (ed.) 1995. Ground truth: The social implications of geographic information systems. New York: Guilford Press

Pickover C A (1990) Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty: graphics from an unseen world. New York, St. Martin’s

Plotnick R E, Gardner R H, O'Neill R V (1993) Lacunarity indices as measures of landscape texture. Landscape Ecology, 8, 201-11

Plotnick R E, Gardner R H, Hargrove W W, Pretegaard K, Perlmutter M (1996) Lacunarity analysis: a general technique for the analysis of spatial patterns. Phys. Rev. E53, 5461-8

Polhill J G, Parker D, Brown D, Grimm V (2008) Using the ODD protocol for describing three Agent-Based social simulation models of land-use change. J. Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 11(2) 3. Available at

Pratt W K (1991) Digital Image Processing. 2nd ed. J Wiley, New York

Prim R C (1957) Shortest connection networks and some generalizations. Bell System Technical J., 36, 1389-1401

Public Administration Committee (2014) Public Administration Committee – Second Special Report. Too soon to scrap the Census: Government and UK Statistics Authority responses. Appendix 1: Government response. Available at: (Accessed 01.11.17)

Puschmann C, Burgess J (2014). Metaphors of big data. International Journal of Communication, 8, 1690–1709. (open access)

Railsback S F, Lytinen S L, Jackson S K (2006) Agent-based simulation platforms: Review and development recommendations. Simulation, 82(9), 609-623

Rana S ed. (2004a) Topological data structures for surfaces: An introduction to geographical information science. J Wiley & Sons

Rana S (2004b) Two approximate solutions to the Art Gallery problem. International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive techniques, Los Angeles

Rana, S (2006) Isovist Analyst — An ArcView extension for planning visual surveillance. in: Proceedings ESRI User Conference 2006, San Diego, CA, USA

Rana S, Wood J (2000) Weighted and metric surface networks — new insights and an interactive application for their generalization in TCL/TK. Working Paper 25, Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London

Rangel T F L V B, Diniz-Filho J A F, Bini L M (2006) Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and Biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 321-327

Ratti C (2001) Urban analysis for environmental prediction. Unpub PhD thesis, Univ. of Cambridge, UK

Ratti C, Baker N, Steemers K (2004) Energy consumption and urban texture. Energy and Buildings, 37, 762-6

Ratti C, Richens S (2004) Raster analysis of urban texture. Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 31, 297-309

Reitsma F (2003) A Response to simplifying complexity. Geoforum, 34(1), 13-16

Reitsma F, Albrecht J (2006) A process-oriented data model. in Drummond J, Billen R, Forrest D, João E (eds.) Dynamic & mobile GIS: Investigating change in space and time. Taylor & Francis, London

Repenning A, Ioannidou A (2004) Agent-based end-user development. Communications of the Association of Computing Machinery, 47(9): 43–46

Repenning A, Ioannidou A, Zola J (2000) AgentSheets: End-user programmable simulations. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 3(3)

Rey S J, Janikas M V (2006) STARS: Space-time analysis of regional systems. Geog. Anal., 38, 67-86

Richards J A (1986) Remote sensing digital image analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Rixon A, Moglia M, Burn S (2005) Bottom-up approaches to building agent-based models: Discussing the need for a platform. Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Multi-Agent Modeling for Environmental Management, Bourg-St-Maurice, France

Robins G, Zelikovsky A (2000) Improved Steiner tree approximation in graphs. Proc. 10th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. on Discrete Algorithms, ACM-SIAM, 770-9

Rodrigue J-P, Comtois C, Slack B (2006) The geography of transport systems. Routledge

Rojas R (1996) Neural Networks — A systematic introduction. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New-York

Roy J R (2004) Spatial interaction modeling: A regional science context. Springer

Royal Society (2017) Data management and use: Governance in the 21st century — a British Academy and Royal Society project. Source: (accessed August 2017)

Rushton G, Goodchild M F, Ostresh L M eds. (1973) Computer programs for location-allocation problems. Monograph No. 6, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa, USA

Russell S, Norvig P (2003) Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Prentice Hall, USA

Saaty T L (1980) The Analytical Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York

Saaty T L (1999) Fundamentals of the Analytical Network Process. Proc. Of ISAHP 1999, Kobe

Sakaki T, Okazaki M, Matsuo Y (2010) Earthquake shakes Twitter users: real-time event detection by social sensors. Proceedings of the Conference on World Wide Web (WWW)

Samson N (2014) Can smart meters save consumers and British Gas money and carbon by pinpointing which consumers are most likely and best placed to install insulation in their homes? Masters Thesis. UCL Department of Geography

Sandwell D T (1987) Biharmonic spline interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data. Geophysical Research Letters, 2, 139-142

Sawada M (1999) ROOKCASE: An Excel 97/2000 Visual Basic (VB) Add-in for exploring global and local spatial autocorrelation. Bull. Ecological Soc. America, 80, 231-4

Scott A J (1971) Combinatorial programming, spatial analysis and planning. Methuen, London

Semboloni F (2000) The growth of an urban cluster into a dynamic, self-modifying spatial pattern. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 27, 549-564

Schelhorn T, O'Sullivan D, Haklay M, Thurstain-Goodwin M (1999) STREETS: An agent-based pedestrian model. Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (University College London): Working Paper 9, London

Schelling T C (1971) Dynamic models of segregation. J. of Mathematical Sociology, 1, 143-186

Schelling T C (1971) Micromotives and macrobehavior. W W Norton & Co

Schietzelt T, Densham P (2003) Location-allocation in GIS. In Longley & Batty (2003) op cit, 345-65

Serenko A, Detlor B (2002) Agent toolkits: A general overview of the market and an assessment of instructor satisfaction with utilizing toolkits in the classroom. McMaster University (School of Business), Ontario, USA

Shannon C, Weaver W (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, USA

Shaw M, Thomas B, Davey Smith G, Dorling D (2008) The Grim Reaper's road map: An atlas of mortality in Britain, Policy Press, Bristol, UK

Shearmur R (2009) A world without data? The unintended consequences of fashion in geography. Urban Geography, 31(8); 1009-1017

Shekhar S, Evans M R, Kang J M,  Mohan P (2011) Identifying patterns in spatial information: A survey of methods. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1(3); 193-214

Shelton T, Zook M, Graham M (2012) The technology of religion: mapping religious cyberscapes. Professional Geographer, 64(4); 602-617

Sherman G (2008) Desktop GIS: Mapping the planet with Open Source. Pragmatic Bookshelf

Shi W, Pang M Y C (2000) Development of Voronoi-based cellular automata: An integrated dynamic model for geographical information systems. International J. of Geographical Information Science, 14(5), 455-474

Silverman B W (1986) Density estimation for statistics and data analysis. Chapman and Hall, New York

Simpson E H (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163, 688

Sirigos S A, Photis Y N (2005) A prototype planning support system for scenario location analysis. Proceedings of 10th International Symposium on Locational Decisions, 2-8 June, Seville

Slocum T A, McMaster R B, Kessler F C, Howard H H (2008) Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization. 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, NJ, USA

Smith W H F, Wessel P (1990) Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension. Geophysics, 55, 293-305

Sokal R R, Smouse P E, Neel J V (1986) The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama indians. XV. Patterns inferred by autocorrelation analysis. Genetics, 114, 259-87

Sondheim M, Gardels K, Buehler K (2005) GIS interoperability. in Longley P A, Maguire D J, Goodchild M F, Rhind D (eds.) Geographical information systems: Principles, techniques, applications, and management (Abridged Edition), John Wiley & Sons, New York

Statista (2017) Social Media Statistics and Facts. Online: (Accessed 19.08.17)

Steinitz C (1983) Geographical information systems: a personal historical perspective, thee framework for a recent project, and some questions for the future. The European Conference on Geographic Information Systems, Genoa, 1993

Stouffler S A (1940) Intervening opportunities: A theory relating mobility and distance. Amer. Soc. Rev., 5, No. 6

Stratton R D (2004) Assessing the effectiveness of landscape fuel treatments on fire growth and behavior. J. of Forestry, 102(7), 32-40

Stratton R D (2006) Guidance on spatial wildfire analysis: Models, tools and techniques. USDA Forest Research, Gen Tech Report RMRS-GTR-183

Sullivan K, Coletti M and Luke S (2010) GeoMason: GeoSpatial Support for MASON, Department of Computer Science, George Mason University, Technical Report Series, Fairfax, VA

Taillandier P (2014) Traffic Simulation with the GAMA Platform, Eighth International Workshop on Agents in Traffic and Transportation, International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2014) Paris, France, Available at

Taillandier P, Vo D, Amouroux E and Drogoul A (2012) GAMA: A Simulation Platform That Integrates Geographical Information Data, Agent-Based Modeling and Multi-scale Control, in Desai N, Liu A and Winikoff M (eds.), Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7057, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 242-258

Taillard E D (2003) Heuristic methods for large centroid clustering problems. J. of Heuristics, 9, 51-74

Takeyama M, Couclelis H (1997) Map dynamics: Integrating cellular automata and GIS through geo-algebra. International J. of Geographical Information Science, 11(1), 73-91

Tarboton D G, Bras R L, Rodriguez-Iturbe I (1991) On the extraction of channel networks from digital elevation data. Hydrological Processes, 5, 81-100

Tarboton D G (1997) A new method for the determination of flow directions and upslope areas in grid digital elevation models. Water Resources Research, 33, 309-19

Tatara E, North M J, Howe T R, Collier N T, Vos J R (2006) An introduction to Repast Simphony modeling using a simple predator-prey example. Proceedings of the Agent 2006 Conference on Social Agents: Results and Prospects, Chicago, USA

Taylor P J, Overton M (1991) Further thoughts on geography and GIS. Environment and Planning A, 23; 1087-1090

Teitz M B, Bart P (1968) Heuristic methods for estimating the generalized vertex median of a weighted graph. Operations Research, 16, 955-61

Tesfatsion L (2006) Agent-based computational economics: A constructive approach to economic theory. in Tesfatsion L, Kenneth L (eds.), Handbook of computational economics. North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Thomas R W (1977) An introduction to quadrat analysis. CATMOG 12

Tinati R, Halford S, Carr L, Pope C (2014) Big data: methodological challenges and approaches for sociological analysis. Sociology, 48(4); 663-681

Tjøstheim D (1978) A measure of association for spatial variables. Biometrika, 65, 109-114

Tobias R, Hofmann C (2004) Evaluation of free Java-libraries for social-scientific agent-based simulation. J. of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 7(1). Available from

Tobler W (1963) Geographic area and map projections, Geographical Review, 53, 59-78

Tobler W (1973) Choropleth maps without class intervals?." Geographical Analysis, 3, 262-265

Tobler W, Wineberg S (1971) A Cappadocian speculation. Nature, 231(5297), 39-42

Tomlin C Dana (1990) Geographic Information systems and cartographic modeling. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey

Tomlinson R F (1967) An introduction to the geo-information system of the Canada Land Inventory. ARDA, Canada Land Inventory, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Ottawa

Tomlinson R F (1970) Computer based geographical data handling methods. In New Possibilities and Techniques for Land Use and Related Surveys, ed. I. H. Cox. World Land Use Occasional Papers No. 8, Geographical Publications Ltd., Berkhamsted, Herts, England

Topa G (2001) Social interactions, local spillovers and unemployment. Review of Economic Studies, 68, 261-295

Torrens P M (2000) How land-use-transportation models work. Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (University College London): Working Paper 20, London

Torrens P M (2004) Simulating sprawl: A dynamic entity-based approach to modeling North American suburban sprawl using cellular automata and multi-agent systems. Ph.D. Thesis, University College London, London

Torrens P M (2006) Geosimulation and its application to urban growth modelling. pp. 119–136 in Portugali J (ed.) Complex Artificial Environments: Simulation, cognition and VR in the study and planning of cities. Springer, Berlin, Germany

Torrens P M, Benenson I (2005) Geographic automata systems. International J. of Geographical Information Science, 19(4), 385-412

Tou J T, Gonzales R C (1974) Pattern classification by distance functions. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

Townsend P, Phillimore P, Beattie,A (1988) Health and Deprivation: Inequality and the North. Croom Helm, London

Tukey J W (1977) Exploratory data analysis. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

Turner A (2004) Depthmap 4, a researcher’s handbook. UCL Bartlett School of Architecture, London

Turner M G, Gardner R H, eds. (1991) Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York

UNECE (2007) Register-based Statistics in the Nordic Countries, Review of the Best Practices with Focus on Population and Social Statistics. New York /Geneva: UNECE

Ungerer M J, Goodchild M F (2002) Integrating spatial data analysis and GIS: A new implementation using Component Object Model (COM). International J. of Geographic Information Science, 16(1), 41-53

Urban D L (2003) Spatial analysis in ecology: Mantel’s test. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Univ of California, Santa Barbara

Valli C,Hannay P (2010) Geotagging Where Cyberspace Comes to Your Place. Proceedings of the International Conference on Security and Management (SAM '12), Las Vegas, Nevada. 627-632

Vaughan R (1987) Urban spatial traffic patterns. Pion, London

Vincenty T (1975) Direct and inverse solutions of geodesics on the ellipsoid with application of nested equations. Survey Review XXII, 176, 88-93

Visvalingam M, Whyatt J D (1991) The Douglas-Peucker algorithm for line simplification: re-evaluation through visualization. Computer Graphics Forum 9, 213-28

Vos J R (2005) Repast .NET: The Repast framework implemented in the .NET. Annual Conference of the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS), Notre Dame, Indiana, USA

Waddell P, Borning A, Noth M, Freier N, Becke M, Ulfarsson G (2003) Microsimulation of urban development and location choices: Design and implementation of UrbanSim. Networks and Spatial Economics, 3(1): 43-67

Waddell P, Wang L, Liu X (2008) UrbanSim: An evolving planning support system for evolving communities. pp. 103–138 in Brail R K (ed.) Planning support systems for cities and regions. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA

Waldrop M M (2017) 'News Feature: Special Agents offer Modeling Upgrade, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(28): 7176-7179

Wall M M (2004) A close look at the spatial structure implied by the CAR and SAR models. J of Statistical Planning and Inference, 121, 311-24

Walsh G R (1975) Methods of optimization. John Wiley & Sons, London

Wegener M (2000) Spatial Models and GIS. in Fotheringham A S, Wegener M (eds.) Spatial models and GIS: New potential and new methods. Taylor and Francis, London

Westervelt J D (2002) Geographic information systems and agent-based modeling. pp 83-104 in Gimblett H R (ed.) Integrating geographic information systems and agent-based modeling techniques for simulating social and ecological processes. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Wei Li, Hao Pu, Paul Schonfeld et. al, (2016) Methodology for optimizing constrained 3-dimensional railway alignments in mountainous terrain. Transportation Research C , 68, 549–565

Wei Li, Hao Pu, Paul Schonfeld et. al, (2017) Mountain Railway Alignment Optimization with Bidirectional Distance Transform and Genetic Algorithm. Computer Aided Civil Infrastructure Engineering (CACIE), 32, 8, 691-709

Whyatt J D, Wade P R (1988) The Douglas-Peucker line simplification algorithm. Society of University Cartographers Bulletin, 22, 17-25

Whitcomb R F, Lynch J F, Klimkiewwicz M K, Robbins C S, Whitcomb B L, Bystrak D (1981) Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of the eastern deciduous forest. pp 125-205 in R L Burgess and D M Sharpe, editors. Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York

White G C, Garrott R A (1990) Analysis of wildlife radio-tracking data. Academic Press, San Diego

Wilensky U (1998) NetLogo Life model. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

Wilensky U (2004) NetLogo Heatbugs model. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Wilson A G (1967) A statistical theory of spatial distribution models. Transportation Research, 1, 253-69

Wise S (2002) GIS basics. Taylor & Francis, London

Wolfram S (1983) Statistical mechanics of cellular automata. Review of Modern Physics, 55, 601-643

Wolfram S (2002) A new kind of science. Wolfram Media, USA

Womble W H (1951) Differential systematics. Science, 114, 315-22

Wong D (2008) The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). Ch 7 in Fotheringham A S and Rogerson P A op .cit.

Wooldridge M, Jennings N R (1995) Intelligent agents: Theory and practice. Knowledge Engineering Review, 10(2), 115-152

Worboys M, Duckham M (2004) GIS — A computing perspective. 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida

Yasui Y, Liu H, Beach J, Winget M (2000) An empirical evaluation of various priors in the empirical Bayes estimation of small area disease risks. Statistics in Medicine, 19, 2409-20

Zadeh L (1965) Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8, 338-22

Zambon M, Lawrence R, Bunn A, Powell S (2006) Effect of alternative splitting rules on image processing using classification tree analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72(1), 25–30

Zeiler M (1999) Modeling our world: The ESRI guide to geodatabase design. ESRI Press, Redlands, California

Zeverbergen L W, Thorne C R (1987) Quantitative analysis of land surface topography. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 12, 47-56

Zhang J, Goodchild M F (2002) Uncertainty in geographic information. Taylor and Francis, London

Zhang C, Franklin S E, Wulder M A (2004) Geostatistical and texture analysis of airborne-acquired images used in forest classification. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 25, 4, 859–865

Zhou Q, Liu X (2004) Analysis of errors of derived slope and aspect related to DEM data properties. Computers & Geosciences 30, 369-78